There was a reciprocal influence among journalists and diplomats, which resulted in stronger democratic control of public authorities. The transition to democracy involved no break with the Francoist State, but rather a step-by-step adaptation of its norms and institutions. The highest positions in the ministry and embassies during the transition were in the hands of diplomats who had made careers during the dictatorship.
The democratic governments did not purge diplomats and senior officials, neither at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs nor in any other branch of the administration. The new mechanism would have to be bureaucratic, regulated and predictable, putting an end to the arbitrariness of the previous period, but most important, it should also guarantee, according to Oreja, democratization within the Foreign Service. This suggests that there were enough diplomats the government could trust politically and that the diplomatic career had become diverse and liberal enough since the s.
The democratic governments tried to open up the Foreign Service to Spanish society, as they wanted a less elitist diplomatic corps. Although we lack sociological studies of Spanish diplomats in these years, scholars agree that the new generations were less endogamic and more socially diverse. The access system created in was partially amended in , when a transitional regime was established, and in , the diplomatic profession was opened to the broader Spanish society. Since future diplomats had to hold a PhD or another graduate degree, obtain the diploma of international studies issued by the School of Diplomacy, take a competitive examination with demanding requirements in language and law and, once admitted, complete a two-year course at the same School of Diplomacy.
The system favored candidates from middle- and upper-class families with sufficient resources to support themselves during this long formative stage. The reform of opened entrance to a wider range of graduates —candidates from technical schools were now admitted— and reduced the course at the School of Diplomacy to one year. The reform also eliminated the prerequisite of the Diploma of International Studies, to the benefit of candidates from lower social classes.
Here, change preceded democracy, since it was in when a reform of the labour law allowed women to enter diplomacy. Members of the Foreign Service were allowed to organize into unions in , and in the first strike in the history of diplomacy in Spain took place —another sign of democratic normalcy.
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The impact of these reforms was threefold: they prompted changes in the ministerial structure of the government, in the staff of the Foreign Service, and in the working culture of some circles within the Spanish diplomatic service. These were entrusted to a secretary of state for relations with the European Communities under the supervision of the foreign minister.
But it was also a matter of which department had the best experts in European politics, an intra-governmental competition in which the MFA had many advantages. In , it promoted the idea of a specialized training center on European issues. As of late , the ministry trained specialized personnel for the negotiations with Brussels. This contributed significantly to the consolidation of democratic values within its ranks and helped reinforce the supremacy of the civilian authority of the Ministry of Defense on military matters, following the model of European democratic countries.
Through daily cooperation with the EPC, Spanish foreign policy gradually converged with that of EEC members, which resulted in Madrid increasingly adopting common positions with the Ten in sensitive areas such as East-West relations, the Palestinian issue, the search for peace in Central America, or sanctions against the South African apartheid regime.
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This secretariat general was also responsible for coordinating the activities of all the directorates general Direcciones Generales and for participating in regular meetings at the level of political directors in the framework of the EPC. Within this office an under directorate for the EPC was created with the mission of taking part in the meetings of the European Political Committees and of analyzing and channeling the flow of political information among the foreign ministries of Spain and of the other members of the EEC.
This committee came to play three key roles: it was a central scene for parliamentary debates on Europe, it was the main organ for parliamentary control of the government, and it became a forum where politicians effectuated pedagogical work regarding European issues aimed at the mass media and Spanish society. This challenge was intensified shortly after by the Single European Act in , which led to further adjustments not only in the MFA but throughout the Spanish administration.
Mas Predicas. Esta pagina contiene una coleccion de versiculos y textos biblicos para funerales segun las sagradas escrituras. Reflexiones cristianas cortas, devocionales y mensajes. Nota: La mayor parte del contenido de este sitio son enlaces a documentos de otros ministerios. Daniel Para entenderlo mejor, piense en el cuerpo humano. Publicado por titi en Ejercicio de canto: traer invitados que dediquen su ministerio a entonar cantos que ensalcen y alaben a Dios.
Adolfo Robleto. Mensajes de aliento. Predicas cristianas predicaciones escritas central de sermones, mensajes cristianos, leer predicas, y sermones cristianos - estudios biblicos. Predicas, devocionales, y temas para hablar y motivar a los jovenes.
Eduardo Alcaraz Trinidad El dia que conocemos a Dios como papito, las cosas nunca vuelven hacer igual. Te ayudaremos a experimentar la vida en el extranjero, ayudar a comunidades de bajos recursos y a ganar confianza en ti mismo. Get your team aligned with all the tools you need on one secure, reliable video platform. Ciertamente hay un camino solitario para los que buscan andar con Dios.
Sergio Altesor Ramos] on Amazon. Predicas y Estudios Biblicos escuchalos en www. Todo para tu Escuela Sabatica. Lo Sermones Adventistas para Jovenes. Le doy Gracias a DIos por la oportunidad que nos da de sequir escullando las predicas…ya que para agunos de nosotros no podemos salir de casa por nuestra salud. Los textos y versiculos biblicos que aparecen aqui son extraidos directamente de la santa bilbia. Variedad de temas, dinamicas cristianas para jovenes, bosquejos biblicos y mas. Libro de visitas.
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